Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Instruments

FLOE Publications


Churnside, J.H., R.D. Marchbanks, and N. Marshall, Airborne lidar observations of a spring phytoplankton bloom in the western Arctic Ocean, Remote Sensing, submitted, 2021. supporting data


Churnside, J.H., R.D. Marchbanks, S. Vagle, S.W. Bell, and P.J. Stabeno, Stratification, plankton layers, and mixing measured by airborne lidar in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, Deep Sea Research II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2020.104742, 2020.

Roddewig, M.R., J.H. Churnside, and J.A. Shaw, Lidar measurements of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in Yellowstone Lake, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.389169, 2020.

Churnside, J., and J. Shaw, Lidar remote sensing of the aquatic environment, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.59.000C92, 2020.


Jamet, C., A. Ibrahim, Z. Ahmad, F. Angelini, M. Babin, M. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, B. Cairns, J. Churnside, J. Chowdhary, A.B. Davis, D. Dionisi, L. Duforêt-Gaurier, B. Franz, R. Frouin, M. Gao, D. Gray, O. Hasekamp, X. He, C. Hostetler, O.V. Kalashnikova, K. Knobelspiesse, L. Lacour, H. Loisel, V. Martins, E. Rehm, L. Remer, I. Sanhaj, K. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, S. Victori, J. Werdel, and P.-W. Zhai, Going beyond standard ocean color observations: Lidar and polarimetry, Frontiers in Marine Science, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00251, 2019.

Churnside, J.H., and R.D. Marchbanks, Calibration of an airborne oceanographic lidar using ocean backscattering measurements from space, Optics Express, doi:10.1364/OE.27.00A536, 2019.

Moore, T.S., J.H. Churnside, J.M. Sullivan, M.S. Twardowski, A.R. Nayak, M.N. McFarland, N.D. Stockley, R.W. Gould, T.H. Johengen, and S.A. Ruberg, Vertical distributions of blooming cyanobacteria populations in a freshwater lake from LIDAR observations, Remote Sensing of Environment, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2019.02.025, 2019.


Churnside, J.H., J.W. Hair, C.A. Hostetler, and A.J. Scarino, Ocean backscatter profiling using high-spectral-resolution lidar and a perturbation retrieval, Remote Sensing, doi:10.3390/rs10122003, 2018.

Roddewig, M.R., J.H. Churnside, F.R. Hauer, J. Williams, P.E. Bigelow, T.M. Koel, and J.A. Shaw, Airborne lidar detection and mapping of invasive lake trout in Yellowstone Lake, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.57.004111, 2018.


Roddewig, M.R., J.H. Churnside, and J.A. Shaw, Airborne Lidar Detection of an Underwater Thermal Vent, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, doi:10.1117/1.JRS.11.036014, 2017.

Churnside, J.H., and R.D. Marchbanks, Inversion of oceanographic profiling lidars by a perturbation to a linear regression, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.56.005228, 2017.

Churnside, J.H., R.J.D. Wells, K.M. Boswell, J.A. Quinlan, R.D. Marchbanks, B.J. McCarty, and T.T. Sutton, Surveying the distribution and abundance of flying fishes and other epipelagics in the northern Gulf of Mexico using airborne lidar, Bulletin of Marine Science, doi:10.5343/bms.2016.1039, 2017.

Churnside, J. H., R. D. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider, Remote Sensing, doi:10.3390/rs9040379, 2017.

Roddewig, M.R., N.J. Pust, J.H. Churnside, and J.A. Shaw, Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research, Optical Engineering, doi:10.1117/1.OE.56.3.031221, 2017.


Churnside, J.H., R.D. Marchbanks, P.L. Donaghay, J.M. Sullivan, W.M. Graham, and R.J.D. Wells, Hollow aggregations of moon jellyfish (Aurelia spp.), Journal of Plankton Research, doi:10.1093/plankt/fbv092, 2016.


Churnside, J. H., Bio-optical model to describe remote sensing signals from a stratified ocean, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, doi:10.1117/1.jrs.9.095989, 2015.

Churnside, J., and R. Marchbanks, Sub-surface plankton layers in the Arctic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2015GL064503, 2015.

Churnside, J.H., K. Naugolnykh, and R.D. Marchbanks, Optical remote sensing of sound in the ocean, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, doi:10.1117/1.JRS.9.096038, 2015.


Churnside, J.H., J.M. Sullivan, and M.S. Twardowski, Lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio of the ocean, Optics Express, doi:10.1364/OE.22.018698, 2014.

Lu, X., Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J.H. Churnside, Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1002/2014JC009970, 2014.


Churnside, J., Review of profiling oceanographic lidar, Optical Engineering, doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051405, 2013.

Churnside, J.H., B.J. McCarty, and X. Lu, Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar, Remote Sensing, doi:10.3390/rs5073457, 2013.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.52.000786, 2013.


W. G. Pichel, T. S. Veenstra, J. H. Churnside, E. Arabini, K. S. Friedman, D. G. Foley, R. E. Brainard, D. Kiefer, S. Ogle, P. Clemente-Colón, and X. Li, GhostNet marine debris survey in the Gulf of Alaska – Satellite guidance and aircraft observations, Marine Pollution Bulletin, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.10.009, 2012.

T. S. Veenstra and J. H. Churnside, Airborne sensors for detecting large marine debris at sea, Marine Pollution Bulletin, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.11.018, 2012.

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, doi:10.1117/1.JRS.6.063611, 2012.


J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsq138, 2011.

D. C. Reese, R. T. O'Malley, R. D. Brodeur, and J. H. Churnside, Epipelagic fish distributions in relation to thermal fronts in a coastal upwelling system using high-resolution remote-sensing techniques, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr107, 2011.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, doi:10.1117/1.3634055, 2011.

J. H. Churnside, E. D. Brown, S. Parker-Stetter, J. K. Horne, G. L. Hunt, N. Hillgruber, M. F. Sigler, and J. J. Vollenweider, Airborne Remote Sensing of a Biological Hot Spot in the Southeastern Bering Sea, Remote Sensing, doi:10.3390/rs3030621, 2011.


M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters, Remote Sensing of Environment, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.05.023, 2010.

J. H. Churnside, Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea, Optics Express, doi:10.1364/OE.18.008294, 2010.


J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, Comparisons of Lidar, Acoustic and Trawl Data on Two Scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean , California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports, 2009.

J. H. Churnside, E. Tenningen, and J. J. Wilson, Comparison of data-processing algorithms for the lidar detection of mackerel in the Norwegian Sea, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsp026, 2009.

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsp029, 2009.

14. J. Churnside, L. Ostrovsky, and T. Veenstra, Thermal Footprints of Whales, Oceanography, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2009.20, 2009.


J. H. Churnside, H. E. Bravo, K. A. Naugolnykh, and I. M. Fuks, Effects of underwater sound and surface ripples on scattered laser light, Acoustical Physics, doi:10.1134/S1063771008020073, 2008.

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, Ocean color inferred from radiometers on low-flying aircraft, Sensors doi:10.3390/s8020860, 2008.

J. H. Churnside, Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar, Optics Express, doi:10.1364/OE.16.001196, 2008.


W. G. Pichel, J. H. Churnside, T. S. Veenstra, D. G. Foley, K. S. Friedman, R. E. Brainard, J. B. Nicoll, Q. Zheng, and P. Clemente-Colon, Marine debris collects within the north Pacific subtropical convergence zone, Marine Pollution Bulletin, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.04.010, 2007.


P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques,C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders - a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.07.004, 2006.

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, Power spectrum and fractal dimension of laser backscattering from the ocean, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, doi:10.1364/JOSAA.23.002829, 2006.

E. Tenningen, J. H. Churnside, A. Slotte, and J. J. Wilson, Lidar target-strength measurements on northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.11.018, 2006.


J. H. Churnside and R. E. Thorne, Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.44.005504, 2005.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.851633, 2005.

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, Lidar observations of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska, International Journal of Remote Sensing, doi:10.1080/01431160410001735076, 2005.


J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, Airborne lidar imaging of salmon, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.43.001416, 2004.


J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, A Comparison of Lidar and Echosounder Measurements of Fish Schools in the Gulf of Mexico, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1006/jmsc.2002.1327, 2003.


E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1006/jmsc.2002.1282, 2002.


J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, and V. V. Tatarskii, Airborne lidar for fisheries applications, Optical Engineering, doi:10.1117/1.1348000, 2001.


N. C. H. Lo, J. R. Hunter, and J. H. Churnside, Modeling Statistical Performance of an Airborne Lidar Survey System for Anchovy , Fishery Bulletin, 2000.

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, Laser Safety Thresholds for Cetaceans and Pinnipeds, Marine Mammal Science, 16(1), 186-200, doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2000.tb00912.x, 2000.


K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, Transient Radiative Transfer Equation Applied to Oceanographic Lidar, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.38.000889, 1999.


J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, Oceanographic Lidar Attenuation Coefficients and Signal Fluctuations Measured from a Ship in the Southern California Bight, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.37.003105 1998.


J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, and V. V. Tatarskii, Lidar Profiles of Fish Schools, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.36.006011, 1997.

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.36.004202, 1997.

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, Fractal laser glints from the ocean surface, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, doi:10.1364/JOSAA.14.001144:, 1997.


James H. Churnside and Phillip A. McGillivary, Optical Properties of Several Pacific Fishes, Applied Optics, doi:10.1364/AO.30.002925, 1991.

Oceanographic Lidar
FLOE Instrumentation
FLOE Aircraft Deployments
FLOE Field Programs
FLOE Measurements
FLOE Publications
Richard Marchbanks
Jim Churnside
Atmospheric Remote Sensing
NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory
Boulder, CO 80305 USA